Endometriosis develops when tissue resembling the endometrium starts growing outside the uterus. The most common symptoms are period pain, painful sexual intercourse and infertility. There are different theories about the causes of endometriosis , but to simplify the discussion we will concentrate on retrograde menstruation as a possible cause. ( it refers to backward menstruation through the fallopian tubes into the peritoneal cavity). The diagnosis depends on symptoms ( symptoms of period pain, painful sexual intercourse and infertility) and is confirmed with a laparoscopy.
Impact on Fertility
The inflammation and irritation caused by the endometriosis can affect fertility. Inflammation of the fimbria, which pick up the egg and transport it into the fallopian tube, causes swelling and scarring so the egg may not reach its destination. As well, the inflammation damages the sperm and eggs when they are exposed to the inhospitable environment caused by the endometriosis. In more advanced cases, the endometriosis starts to cause adhesions, and the pelvic organs become stuck to each other, resulting in decreased function. Endometriosis can also block the fallopian tubes.